Sinusitis, also known as a sinus infection or rhinosinusitis, is inflammation of the sinuses resulting in symptoms. Common signs and symptoms include thick nasal mucus, a plugged nose, and pain in the face. Other signs and symptoms may include fever, headaches, poor sense of smell, sore throat, and cough. A cough is often worse at night. Serious complications are rare. It is defined as acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) if it lasts less than 4 weeks, and as chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) if it lasts for more than 12 weeks.
Sinusitis can be caused by infection, allergies, air pollution, or structural problems in the nose. Most cases are caused by a viral infection. A bacterial infection may be present if symptoms last more than ten days or if a person worsens after starting to improve. Recurrent episodes are more likely in people with asthma, cystic fibrosis, and poor immune function. X-rays are not typically needed unless complications are suspected. In chronic cases, confirmatory testing is recommended by either direct visualization or computed tomography.
Some cases may be prevented by hand washing, avoiding smoking, and immunization. Painkillers such as naproxen, nasal steroids, and nasal irrigation may be used to help with symptoms. Recommended initial treatment for ARS is watchful waiting. If symptoms do not improve in 7–10 days or get worse, then an antibiotic may be used or changed. In those in whom antibiotics are used, either amoxicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanate is recommended the first line. Surgery may occasionally be used for people with chronic disease.
This is a procedure that may be used in the treatment of certain conditions, including
- Chronic sinusitis
Complications of sinusitis
Mucoceles of the paranasal sinuses
Meant to restore sinus ventilation and normal function, functional endoscopic sinus surgery relies on a combination of nasal endoscopes and CT scans. It is a minimally invasive procedure that does not involve cutting of the skin.
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